Another popular martial arts discipline is taekwondo. Taekwondo is a martial art that originated from Korea, and features a host of high kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, as well as rapid multiple kick combinations. Some of mixed martial arts’ most prominent athletes and world champions either come from a taekwondo background, or have used taekwondo a lot in their respective styles — athletes like former middleweight king Anderson “The Spider” Silva, featherweight great Anthony “Showtime” Pettis, Benson Henderson, and more.

The kicking process

The kicks used in Tae Kwon Do have received little research attention (TKD). The aim of this research was to compare the biomechanics of different TKD kicking techniques.

Methods: The biomechanics of three different styles of kicks performed by five Black Belt level athletes were studied using a motion analysis video-camera based method. To compare the kicking strategies, the velocity of the kicking foot, the velocity of the pelvis, and the lower body linear momentum were calculated.

Results: Different kicks showed similar patterns of foot, knee, and hip movement. The front kick produced the highest peak foot velocity. The side kick had the maximum peak linear momentum of the lower body. The subjects who were able to achieve peak pelvic velocity and peak lower body linear momentum at the same time performed the best. Techniques that involved taking a step forward after the kicks were more effective than techniques that involved returning to the starting position.

Conclusion: The front kick is the fastest and the side kick is the most effective, according to this report. The efficacy of the technique is linked to the synchronisation of pelvic and lower-body movement.

Keywords: tae kwon do, biomechanics, martial arts, sports injuries

Brief introduction

Martial arts are practised in many different ways around the world, each with its own philosophy and design.

3–1 Tae Kwon Do (TKD) is a traditional Korean martial art that is also the most popular in the United States. Martial arts are practised by about 2 million people in the United States. 4 TKD is considered a reasonably healthy sport when practised as a light contact sport. 5–7 The recent inclusion of TKD in the Olympic Games reflects the growing popularity of the sport. 8:9 Within the sport, a number of kicks are taught, each with its own set of applications and abilities. Individual kick types can have different biomechanics, which may lead to different injury risks. ten, eleven Few studies have looked at these disparities in depth.

While some studies have identified the types of injuries that occur in TKD12,13, the issue of how these injuries happen has remained unanswered. Most TKD kicking techniques involve a lot of pace and strength, which increases the risk of injury. 14 The forces produced are determined by the kick and how it is performed. Following a kick, some kicks include walking towards the goal. Some kicks require you to leave the field. Some require pelvic rotating, while others require spinning motions. The kinetics of these distinct motions are still unknown.

Serina et al.15 looked into the possibility of thoracic injury as a result of various TKD kicks. The roundhouse, turning roundhouse, back, and sidekicks were among the four basic kicks tested. Each kick’s velocity and energy output were measured. They discovered that roundhouse and turning-round house kicks are the strongest, and that these kicks have the greatest potential for injuring soft tissue. They also indicated that, due to the degree of chest compression caused by these kicks, the back and side kicks through predispose a TKD opponent to the greatest risk of injury.

A biomechanical model was used by Robertson et al.16 to explain the occurrence of peak power during a front kick. They discovered that peak strength during a front kick was higher in an open stance than in a closed stance. The hip extensors and flexors were also discovered to be the primary movers of both the hip and knee.

However, these experiments omitted a detailed examination of the motor techniques used to produce a powerful blow. This is crucial knowledge for advocates of TKD who teach it as a self-defense technique. Furthermore, as TKD becomes a more mainstream sport, learning the biomechanics of the different kicks will help athletes improve their competition and safety. Patients will be trained on both how to develop their strategy and safety during the kicking process, which may be clinically relevant for the sports medicine physician.

In this research, TKD black belts were enlisted to test the efficacy of three different kicks: the front kick, side kick, and round kick, all of which were delivered using two different techniques. The kicking leg began as the back leg in the first technique and returned to its original position after the kick was done. The second technique involved kicking with the same back leg and then stepping down in the direction of the goal after the kick was completed. The data was gathered using a motion analysis camera-based method, and it was used to investigate the motor methods used to produce the most successful blast, as well as compare and contrast the various forms of kicks and delivery techniques.


The American Tae Kwon Do Association assisted in the recruitment of five adult men and women. Table 1 summarises their key characteristics. Many of the participants were participating and had at least a third-degree black belt. All of the participants signed an informed consent document. All of the kicks were executed from a standard “combat” stance, with one limb remaining in contact with the ground for the duration of the kick. Subjects were challenged to kick a fictitious goal with force.

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